Our article “New Insights into Rental Housing Markets across the United States: Web Scraping and Analyzing Craigslist Rental Listings” is finally appearing in print in the Journal of Planning Education and Research‘s forthcoming winter issue. We collected, validated, and analyzed 11 million Craigslist rental listings to discover fine-grained patterns across metropolitan housing markets in the United States.
Continue reading New Article: Craigslist Housing Markets in JPER
My article “OSMnx: New methods for acquiring, constructing, analyzing, and visualizing complex street networks” was published in the journal Computers, Environment and Urban Systems earlier this month. OSMnx is a Python package that lets you download a street network anywhere in the world at any scale with a single line of code, then analyze or visualize it with one more line of code.
Continue reading New Article: OSMnx in CEUS
What does artificial intelligence see when it looks at your city? I recently created a Twitter bot in Python called CityDescriber that takes popular photos of cities from Reddit and describes them using Microsoft’s computer vision AI. The bot typically does pretty well with straightforward images of city skylines and street scenes:
Some are even kind of wryly poetic, such as this description of Los Angeles: Continue reading Describing Cities with Computer Vision
Check out the journal article about OSMnx.
How far can you travel on foot in 15 minutes? Urban planners use isochrone maps to show spatial horizons (i.e., isolines) that are equal in time. Isochrones depict areas according to how long it takes to arrive there from some point. These visualizations are particularly useful in transportation planning as they reveal what places are accessible within a set of time horizons.
We can create isochrone maps for anywhere in the world automatically with Python and its OSMnx package:
Continue reading Isochrone Maps with OSMnx + Python
I co-authored a chapter in the new book Untapped: Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of Craft Beer with the estimable Jesus Barajas and Julie Wartell. Our chapter is titled “Neighborhood Change, One Pint at a Time” and it explores the relationship between craft breweries, urban planning and policy, and gentrification.
We found that many cities have changed their zoning codes recently (and even offer subsidies) to make it easier to establish craft breweries and brewpubs, with the goal of economic development. There’s a strong narrative (and anecdotal evidence) of craft breweries “revitalizing” neglected neighborhoods. New breweries often seek inexpensive industrial spaces in close proximity to urban centers and residential districts. In turn, they serve as anchor institutions that appeal to whiter, wealthier, and more educated demographic groups. Many craft brewers explicitly see themselves as agents of neighborhood revitalization and “committed urbanists.” The brewers we interviewed uniformly stated that neighborhood character was an important or even primary reason for their location choice, and many referred to themselves as pioneers and catalysts in neglected historic neighborhoods.
Continue reading Craft Beer, Urban Planning, and Gentrification
Check out the journal article about OSMnx.
OSMnx can now download street network elevation data for anywhere in the world. In one line of code it downloads the elevation in meters of each network node, and in one more line of code it can calculate every street (i.e., edge) grade. Here is the complete street network of San Francisco, California, with nodes colored according to their elevation:
Continue reading OSMnx and Street Network Elevation Data
Check out the journal article about OSMnx. This is a summary of some of my recent research on making OpenStreetMap data analysis easy for urban planners. It was also published on the ACSP blog.
OpenStreetMap – a collaborative worldwide mapping project inspired by Wikipedia – has emerged in recent years as a major player both for mapping and acquiring urban spatial data. Though coverage varies somewhat worldwide, its data are of high quality and compare favorably to CIA World Factbook estimates and US Census TIGER/Line data. OpenStreetMap imported the TIGER/Line roads in 2007 and since then its community has made numerous corrections and improvements. In fact, many of these additions go beyond TIGER/Line’s scope, including for example passageways between buildings, footpaths through parks, bike routes, and detailed feature attributes such as finer-grained street classifiers, speed limits, etc.
This presents a fantastic data source to help answer urban planning questions, but OpenStreetMap’s data has been somewhat difficult to work with due to its Byzantine query language and coarse-grained bulk extracts provided by third parties. As part of my dissertation, I developed a tool called OSMnx that allows researchers to download street networks and building footprints for any city name, address, or polygon in the world, then analyze and visualize them. OSMnx democratizes these data and methods to help technical and non-technical planners and researchers use OpenStreetMap data to study urban form, circulation networks, accessibility, and resilience.
Continue reading Urban Form Analysis with OpenStreetMap Data
Check out the journal article about OSMnx.
OSMnx is a Python package for downloading administrative boundary shapes and street networks from OpenStreetMap. It allows you to easily construct, project, visualize, and analyze complex street networks in Python with NetworkX. You can get a city’s or neighborhood’s walking, driving, or biking network with a single line of Python code. Then you can simply visualize cul-de-sacs or one-way streets, plot shortest-path routes, or calculate stats like intersection density, average node connectivity, or betweenness centrality. You can download/cite the paper here.
In a single line of code, OSMnx lets you download, construct, and visualize the street network for, say, Modena Italy:
import osmnx as ox
Continue reading OSMnx: Python for Street Networks
A few months ago, I wrote about the large investments that U.S. universities are making in their football stadiums. This also included a visual analysis of stadium capacity around the country. Outside of North Korea, the 8 largest stadiums in the world are college football stadiums, and the 15 largest college football stadiums are larger than any NFL stadium.
I received a few comments interested in further analysis of the actual attendance of games held in these stadiums. While capacity is interesting because it represents an expectation and sustained investment by the school, attendance represents the utilization of that investment. My stadium capacity data covered every NCAA division I football stadium in the U.S. as of the 2015 college football season. So, I downloaded the NCAA’s 2015 home game attendance data to compare. My data, code, and analysis are in this GitHub repo. First, I visualized the FBS attendance figures themselves:
Continue reading College Football Stadium Attendance
This is a summary of our JPER journal article (available here) about Craigslist rental listings’ insights into U.S. housing markets.
Rentals make up a significant portion of the U.S. housing market, but much of this market activity is poorly understood due to its informal characteristics and historically minimal data trail. The UC Berkeley Urban Analytics Lab collected, validated, and analyzed 11 million Craigslist rental listings to discover fine-grained patterns across metropolitan housing markets in the United States. I’ll summarize our findings below and explain the methodology at the bottom.
But first, 4 key takeaways:
- There are incredibly few rental units below fair market rent in the hottest housing markets. Some metro areas like New York and Boston have only single-digit percentages of Craigslist rental listings below fair market rent. That’s really low.
- This problem doesn’t exclusively affect the poor: the share of its income that the typical household would spend on the typical rent in cities like New York and San Francisco exceeds the threshold for “rent burden.”
- Rents are more “compressed” in soft markets. For example, in Detroit, most of the listed units are concentrated within a very narrow band of rent/ft² values, but in San Francisco rents are much more dispersed. Housing vouchers may end up working very differently in high-cost vs low-cost areas.
- Craigslist listings correspond reasonably well with Dept of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) estimates, but provide up-to-date data including unit characteristics, from neighborhood to national scales. For example, we can see how rents are changing, neighborhood by neighborhood, in San Francisco in a given month.
Continue reading Craigslist and U.S. Rental Housing Markets